History Of Cartography Wikipedia

History of cartography - Wikipedia.

History of cartography's technological changes More at Cartography ? Technological changes. A portrait of a mapmaker looking up intently from his charts and holding a caliper, 1714. In cartography, technology has continually changed in order to meet the demands of new generations of mapmakers and map users. The first maps were manually ....


History of citizenship - Wikipedia.

History of citizenship describes the changing relation between an individual and the state, commonly known as citizenship.Citizenship is generally identified not as an aspect of Eastern civilization but of Western civilization. There is a general view that citizenship in ancient times was a simpler relation than modern forms of citizenship, although this view has been challenged..


History of Portugal (1415–1578) - Wikipedia.

The history of the Kingdom of Portugal from the Illustrious Generation of the early 15th century to the fall of the House of Aviz in the late 16th century has been named the "Portuguese golden age" (Portuguese: Seculo de Ouro; "golden century") and the "Portuguese Renaissance". During this period, Portugal was the first European power to begin building a colonial empire as ....


Topographic map - Wikipedia.

Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property and governmental boundaries.The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the ....


Ordnance Survey - Wikipedia.

The British Geological Survey was founded in 1835 as the Ordnance Geological Survey under Henry De la Beche, and remained a branch of the Ordnance Survey until 1965.At the same time the uneven quality of the English and Scottish maps was being improved by engravers under Benjamin Baker.By the time Colby retired in 1846, the production of six-inch maps of Ireland ....


Infographic - Wikipedia.

Early history. In 1626, Christoph Scheiner published the Rosa Ursina sive Sol, a book that revealed his research about the rotation of the sun.Infographics appeared in the form of illustrations demonstrating the Sun's rotation patterns.. In 1786, William Playfair, an engineer and political economist, published the first data graphs in his book The Commercial and Political Atlas..


Geography and cartography in medieval Islam - Wikipedia.

Medieval Islamic geography and cartography refer to the study of geography and cartography in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age (variously dated between the 8th century and 16th century). Muslim scholars made advances to the map-making traditions of earlier cultures, particularly the Hellenistic geographers Ptolemy and Marinus of Tyre,: 193 combined with what ....


History of transport - Wikipedia.

The history of transport is largely one of technological innovation.Advances in technology have allowed people to travel farther, explore more territory, and expand their influence over larger and larger areas. Even in ancient times, new tools such as foot coverings, skis, and snowshoes lengthened the distances that could be traveled. As new inventions and discoveries were ....


History of geography - Wikipedia.

Egypt. The known world of Ancient Egypt saw the Nile as the centre, and the world as based upon "the" river. Various oases were known to the east and west, and were considered locations of various gods (e.g. Siwa, for Amon).To the South lay the Kushitic region, known as far as the 4th cataract. Punt was a region south along the shores of the Red Sea. . Various Asiatic peoples ....


Cartography of India - Wikipedia.

The cartography of India begins with early charts for navigation and constructional plans for buildings. Indian traditions influenced Tibetan and Islamic traditions, and in turn, were influenced by the British cartographers who solidified modern concepts into India's map making.. A prominent foreign geographer and cartographer was Hellenistic geographer Ptolemy (90-168) ....


Cartography of Europe - Wikipedia.

The earliest cartographic depictions of Europe are found in early world maps.In classical antiquity, Europe was assumed to cover the quarter of the globe north of the Mediterranean, an arrangement that was adhered to in medieval T and O maps.. Ptolemy's world map of the 2nd century already had a reasonably precise description of southern and western Europe, but was ....


Science in the medieval Islamic world - Wikipedia.

Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Cordoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period roughly between 786 and 1258. Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject ....


History of Philadelphia - Wikipedia.

The written history of Philadelphia begins in 1682, when the city was founded by William Penn in the English Crown Province of Pennsylvania between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers.. Before then, the area was inhabited by the Lenape people. Philadelphia quickly grew into an important colonial city and during the American Revolution was the site of the First and Second ....


Politics - Wikipedia.

The history of politics spans human history and is not limited to modern institutions of government.. Prehistoric. Frans de Waal argued that chimpanzees engage in politics through "social manipulation to secure and maintain influential positions." Early human forms of social organization--bands and tribes--lacked centralized political structures. These are sometimes ....


Planetary geology - Wikipedia.

Planetary geology, alternatively known as astrogeology or exogeology, is a planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites. Although the geo- prefix typically indicates topics of or relating to Earth, planetary geology is named as such for historical and convenience reasons; due to ....


Wudu - Wikipedia.

Wudu? (Arabic: ?????? al-wudu' [w?'d?u:?]) is the Islamic procedure for cleansing parts of the body, a type of ritual purification, or ablution.The 4 Fardh (Mandatory) acts of Wudu consists of washing the face, arms, then wiping the head and the feet with water.. Wudu is an important part of ritual purity in Islam.It is governed by fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), which ....


Karoo - Wikipedia.

The Karoo (/ k ? ' r u ? / k?-ROO-?; from the Afrikaans borrowing of the South Khoekhoe!Orakobab or Khoemana word ?'Aukarob "Hardveld") is a semi-desert natural region of South Africa. No exact definition of what constitutes the Karoo is available, so its extent is also not precisely defined. The Karoo is partly defined by its topography, geology and climate, and above all, its low ....


San Francisco Bay - Wikipedia.

San Francisco Bay is a large tidal estuary in the U.S. state of California, and gives its name to the San Francisco Bay Area.It is dominated by the large cities of San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland.. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, and from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into ....


Visual culture - Wikipedia.

Visual culture is the aspect of culture expressed in visual images.Many academic fields study this subject, including cultural studies, art history, critical theory, philosophy, media studies, Deaf Studies and anthropology.. The field of visual culture studies in the United States corresponds or parallels the Bildwissenschaft ("image studies") in Germany..


Zheng He - Wikipedia.

Zheng He (Chinese: ??; 1371 - 1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.He was originally born as Ma He in a Muslim family and later adopted the surname Zheng conferred by the Yongle Emperor. Zheng commanded expeditionary treasure voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia, and ....